Main Article Content
Livestock is the major contributor in the agriculture sector, besides meat and hides, and milk is the chief product obtained in terms of nutrition from livestock. 85% of the global milk production is obtained from cows followed by buffalo (11%), goat (2.3%), sheep (1.4%), and camel (0.2%). In contrast to Cow, Sheep farming is famous in its worth as it does not depend on seasonality for its peak production and rich in milk fat contents. The advanced market of dairy products prefers the prebiotics and probiotics of sheep milk in comparison to other livestock. Awassi sheep is known as a very popular and proliferative breed in the non-European region due to its ability to absorb the environmental deviation and adapts the feeding fluctuation from steppe to the highly intensive system. In general, Awassi ewe can produce an average of 60-80 liters milk with lactation length of 150 days under different methods of production while an improved Awassi ewe can yield 504 liters milk within 214 days of lactation length under a well-managed production system. Turkish Awassi breed reported an increase from 67 kg to 152 kg in 7 years through proper selection and breeding. In the middle east, the Awassi is considered as a triple purpose breed but it's a very famous type of rearing is as a dairy sheep. Several factors including lactation length and number, birth type, electrical conductivity, season, parity, milking frequency and production year are considered important for the awassi sheep production.
Abecia JA, Garcia A, Castillo L, Palacios C., 2017. The effects of weather on milk production in dairy sheep vary by month of lambing and lactation phase. Journal of Animal Behaviour and Biometeorology, 5(2): 56-63.
Albenzio M, Santillo A, Avondo M, Nudda A, Chessa S, Pirisi A, Banni S., 2016. Nutritional properties of small ruminant food products and their role on human health. Small Ruminant Research, 135:3-12.
Alkass JE, Juma KH., 2005. Small Ruminant breeds of Iraq. In: Iniguez L (ed), Characterization of Small Ruminant Breeds in West Asia and North Africa. Vol. 1. West Asia. International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, p. 63-101.
Balthazar F, Pimentel TC, Ferrao LL, Almada CN, Santillo A, Albenzio M,. Mollakhalili N, Mortazavian AM, Nascimento JS, Silva MC, Freitas MQ, Sant?Ana AS, Granato D, Cruz G., 2017. Sheep milk: physicochemical characteristics and relevance for functional food development. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(2): 247-262.
Bar?owska J, Szwajkowska M, Litwi?czuk Z, Król J., 2011. Nutritional value and technological suitability of milk from various animal species used for dairy production. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 10(6): 291-302.
Basdagianni Z, Sinapis E, Banos G., 2018. Evaluation of reference lactation length in Chios dairy sheep. Animal, 13(1): 1-7.
Bencini R. Pulina G., 1997. The quality of sheep milk: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37(4):485-504
Biçer O, Keskin M, Gül S, Gündüz Z, Oflaz NZ, Behrem S., 2019 Comparison of yield characteristics of brown and black headed Awassi sheep. MKU. Tar. Bil. Derg., 24(1) : 58-61.
Carta A, Sanna S, Casu S., 1995. Estimating lactation curves and seasonal effects for milk, fat and protein in Sarda dairy sheep with a test day model. Livestock Production Science, 44(1): 37-44.
Degen AA, Benjamin R.W., 2003. Milk intake and growth rate of Awassi lambs sucking ewes grazing on natural pasture in the semi-arid Negev. Animal Science, 76(3): 455-460.
Dhaoui A, Chniter M, Atigui M, Dbara M, Seddik MM, Hammadi M., 2019. Factors affecting the milk yield and composition over lactation of prolific D'man ewes in Tunisian oases. Trop Anim Health Prod. 51(3):507-518.
Epstein H., 1985. The Awassi sheep, with special reference to the improved dairy type. FAO Animal Production And Health Paper 57. http://www.fao.org/3/aj003e/AJ003E00.htm
FAO., 2019. Dairy and dairy products, OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028 © OECD/FAO 2019. Acceses: http://www.fao.org/3/CA4076EN/CA4076EN_Chapter7_Dairy.pdf
Galal S, Gürsoy O, Shaat I., 2008. Awassi sheep as a genetic resource and efforts for their genetic improvement?A review. Small Ruminant Research, 79(2-3): 99-108.
Gootwine E, Pollott G., 2000. Factors affecting milk production in Improved Awassi dairy ewes. Animal Science, 71(3): 607-615.
Gursoy O., 2005. Small Ruminant Breeds of Turkey. In Chracterization of Small Ruminant Breeds in West Asia and North Africa. Small Ruminants Research, 1: 239-416.
Gürsu G. Aygün T., 2014. Some characteristics of milk yield in Awassi ewes maintained at village conditions. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 1(1):19-23.
Hailat N., 2005. Small ruminant breeds of Jordan. In: Iniguez, L. (Ed.), Characterization of Small Ruminant Breeds in West Asia, North Africa, vol. 1. West Asia, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 30?61.
Jawasreh KIZ, Khasawneh AZ., 2007. Genetic evaluation of milk production traits in Awassi sheep in Jordan. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goats Sciences, 2(2):60-75.
Kasap A, ?pehar M, Dr?ai? V, Mulc D, Bara? Z, Antunovi? Z, Mio? B., 2019. Impact of parity and litter size on dairy traits in Istrian ewes. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 20(2): 556-562.
Kassem R., 2005. Small ruminant breeds of Syria. In Charcterization of small ruminant breeds in West Asia and North Africa. ICARDA
Kaygısız A, Dağ, B., 2017. Elit İvesi Koyunlarında Meme Tipinin ve Bazı Çevre Faktörlerinin Süt Verimine Etkisi. KSÜ Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 20 (4 ): 344-349.
Khazaal K., 2005. Small ruminant breeds of Lebanon. In: Iniguez, L. (Ed.), Characterization of small ruminant breeds in West Asia, North Africa, vol. 1: West Asia. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 155?181.
Mavrogenis A., Louca A., 1980. Effects of different husbandry systems on milk production of purebred and crossbred sheep.Animal Science, 31(2):171-176.
Milani FX,. Wendorff WL., 2011. Goat and sheep milk products in the United States (USA) Goat and sheep milk products in the United States (USA), Small Ruminant Research, 101 (1?3):134-139.
Misachi J., 2017. The Top Sheep Milk Producing Countries in the World. WorldAtlas. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-top-sheep-milk-producing-countries-in-the-world.html
Özyürek S., 2020. Investigation of Relationship between Udder Morphology, Lactation Traits and Milk Components in Morkaraman and Awassi. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 10(1): 268-274.
Pacinovski N, Eftimova E, Gievski M., 2007. Comparison of milk production ability between Awassi and East-Friesian sheep in Macedonia. In: Proceedings of the III Symposium of livestock production with international participation, Ohrid. pp: 65-72.
Park Y, Juárez M, Ramos M, Haenlein GJ., 2007. Physico-chemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68(1-2): 88-113.
Robertson SM, Broster JC, Friend MA., 2020. Performance of sheep systems grazing perennial pastures. 1. Pasture persistence and enterprise productivity.Animal Production Science, 60(3) 388-405.
Roca A., Romero G, Alejandro M, Muelas R, Díaz JR., 2019. Milk electrical conductivity in Manchega ewes: Variation throughout milking and relation with mammary gland health status. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 300-308.
Skapetas B, Kalaitzidou M., 2017. Current status and perspectives of sheep sector in the world. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 29, Article #21. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/2/skap29021.html
Sultan KH., 2019.The effect of body weight and litter size on some productive parameters and milk components of sheep under semi ? intensive breeding. Mesopotamia Journal of Agric., 47(3):15-24.
Talafha AQ, Ababneh MM., 2011. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production. Trop Anim Health Prod., 43(7): 1319-1326.
Uhrin?a? M, Tan?in V, Tvaro?ková K, Ma?uhová L, Vr?ková M, Ptá?ek M, Holko I, 2019. The electrical conductivity of sheep's milk and the possibility of mastitis detection. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, 13(1): 562-565.
Üstüner H, Oğan MM., 2013. Main productive performance of Awassi sheep in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 37(3): 271-276.
Wendorff W, Haenlein GF., 2017. Sheep milk - composition and nutrition. In: Park YW, Haenlein GFW, Wendorff WL, editors. Handbook of milk of non?bovine mammals. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 210?221.