Spatio-temporal Prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Zimbabwe from the year 2006-2016

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Masivuye I Tshuma
Tonderai Mutibvu
Venancio E. Imbayarwo Chikosi
David T. Mbiriri
Tinyiko E. Halimani
Michael Chimonyo
Reverend M. Spargo


Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic to Zimbabwe. The disease increases production losses and has resulted in the loss of the lucrative local and international beef markets. This study determined farmer perceptions on FMD and investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of the disease over a 10-year period in Zimbabwe. Farmer perceptions on FMD were determined through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to a purposive sample of 99 farmers who delivered cattle to Grills Abattoir in Bulawayo Province.  Spatio-temporal distribution and incidence of FMD were mapped with QGIS using 2 020 records from the Department of Veterinary Services. Odds ratio estimates indicated the likelihood of occurrence of FMD in a given district. Eighty-seven percent of the respondents had some knowledge about FMD most of which was obtained from the government veterinary officers (42.2%). Farmers identified cattle (68.6%) and buffalos (41.2%) as the species most vulnerable to FMD. About 81% of the farmers acknowledged the negative impacts of FMD on cattle productivity. Perceptions on FMD prevention and control varied widely and were largely inaccurate. Most farmers believed FMD could be cured with common antibiotics such as oxytetracycline. Foot and Mouth Disease had spread from districts from the south of the country to the north western parts although some districts had not experienced any outbreaks at the time of the study. Given the spread and prevalence of FMD, there was an urgent need for the Government to invest in the identification of more effective FMD control approaches to prevent nation-wide spread and recurrence.

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Tshuma, M. I. ., Mutibvu, T., Imbayarwo Chikosi , V. E., Mbiriri, D. T., Halimani, T. E., Chimonyo, M., & Spargo, R. M. (2023). Spatio-temporal Prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Zimbabwe from the year 2006-2016. Journal of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Animal Sciences, 4(1), 78-101. Retrieved from (Original work published June 1, 2023)